There is evidence that HIV prevention programs for sex workers, especially female sex workers, are cost-effective in several contexts, including many western countries, Thailand, India, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Kenya, and Zimbabwe. The evidence that sex worker HIV prevention programs work must not inspire complacency but rather a renewed effort to expand, intensify, and maximize their impact. Based on the wider collection of papers, this article presents three major clusters of recommendations: i HIV programs focused on sex workers should be prioritized, developed, and implemented based on robust evidence; ii national political will and increased funding are needed to increase coverage of effective sex worker HIV prevention programs in low and middle income countries; and iii comprehensive, integrated, and rapidly evolving HIV programs are needed to ensure equitable access to health services for individuals involved in all forms of sex work. PLoS Med 12 6 : e
Gay rights, sex workers and HIV prevention: Uganda’s activists answer your questions
Sex workers' preferences for HIV prevention center on convenience
Research from specialist HIV prevention and treatment clinics for female sex workers in Nairobi has found that the number testing positive for HIV dropped by more than two-thirds between and While no single intervention can be identified as to the underlying cause in the decreasing numbers, it suggests that increasing HIV awareness, testing and treatment in Kenya are reaching this population of women, despite the criminalisation of sex work. It is estimated that female sex workers in Kenya are almost ten times more likely to contract HIV than non-sex workers, so they are a key population to target. The clinics use peer support and outreach workers to recruit female sex workers. Further information was collected by analysing questionnaires that the women were asked to complete when attending.
Prostitution in India
Prostitution is legal in India. A tawaif was a courtesan who catered to the nobility of India, particularly during the Mughal era. The tawaifs excelled in and contributed to music, dance mujra , theatre, and the Urdu literary tradition,  and were considered an authority on etiquette. Tawaifs were largely a North Indian institution central to Mughal court culture from the 16th century onwards  and became even more prominent with the weakening of Mughal rule in the midth century. Goa was a colony in Portuguese India set up in the early 16th century, and this Portuguese stronghold contained a community of Portuguese slaves.